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Volume(5) / Issue(7)

Method of Preparation of Various Inputs Used in Natural Farming

Hridesh Harsha Sarma and Saurav Kumar Dutta

Natural farming emphasizes harmonizing with nature rather than opposing it. It promotes the use of natural predators, compost, animal dung, and locally available organic resources to enhance soil fertility, manage pests, and boost crop yields. The approach has gained global traction due to its environmental and socio-economic benefits. Components of natural farming are Beejamrit, jivamrit, Whapasa, Acchadana and plant protection. Neemastra, Agniastra, Brahmastra, Dashaparni ark and natural fungicides are used as plant protection measures. Preparation of these inputs is very crucial for proper growth and development of crops grown under this technique. Natural farming minimizes soil and water pollution, preserves biodiversity, and mitigates climate change impacts by reducing reliance on chemical pesticides and fertilizers. Countries like India have increasingly recognized and supported natural farming practices. Despite its benefits, challenges such as limited farmer awareness, inadequate access to organic inputs, and the need for supportive policies and infrastructure remain hurdles to widespread adoption.

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Role of Insects as a Potential Source of Nutrients in Human Diet

Hridesh Harsha Sarma and Siranjib Sonowal

Insects have emerged as a promising source of nutrition for humans, offering a sustainable and nutrient-rich alternative to traditional protein sources. Rich in protein, healthy fats, vitamins (such as B vitamins), minerals (like iron and zinc), and dietary fiber, they provide a well-rounded nutritional profile. Beyond their nutritional benefits, insects require significantly fewer resources?land, water, and feed?compared to conventional livestock, making them environmentally sustainable. Consuming insects has been a longstanding human practice, yet remains stigmatized or taboo in certain cultures. Compared to conventional livestock, insect farming requires minimal land, water, and feed inputs, thereby reducing environmental footprint. Their cultivation emits significantly fewer greenhouse gases and contributes less to deforestation, aligning with sustainability goals. This efficiency makes insects particularly attractive in regions where agricultural resources are limited or climate challenges threaten food security.

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Pink Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus djamor): Introduction and General Farming Practices

Vijay Kumar and Ashok Chhetri

Pleurotus djamor known as "Pink Oyster Mushroom" as the colour of the fruiting bodies are pink. This is a unique Pleurotus mushroom species among all the members of the Pleurotus species. They are nutritionally very rich composed of high quality of protein, high fibre, low fat, vitamin and essential minerals. These mushrooms have very unique taste that this can be considered as a good alternative to meat or non veg. P. djamor can be grown on a wide range of agro-wastes like wheat straw, soyabean, coffee husk, rice husk and paddy straw etc. But the best results only be available on the substrate which are having higher content of lignocelluloses. In India its cultivation can be popularized by working on its cultivation technology refinement, substrate availability and create awareness among the people regarding the health benefits of P. djamor. The cultivation of P. djamor is still following the same cultivation process as followed in the other species of oyster mushroom.

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The Journey of Artificial Seeds in Modern Agriculture

Srijal Sahu and Bazil A. Singh

Artificial seeds with encapsulated somatic embryos and/or vegetative parts are now beginning to be seen in modern agriculture, promising both increased crop-yield and new plant varieties. Integrated with 21st-century technologies such storage and propagation of superior strains plant breeders have long sought for the solution, from two fronts, which are particularly important commercial hybrid rice clones rope in nanotechnology to its aid; trees defined by genome pattern in a way that man in the Street, whoever he Exposure to more than his share of Storage and seed germination have always been problematic, yet artificial seeds offer quick, regular germination and genetic preservation, which are helpful for this breed of plant to be bred. To speed up germination, farmers have developed a coating of biochar and added some active elements in the seed such as antifungal, nutrient solutions. These are enhancements in farming techniques. Using this artificial seed technology overcomes the vital problems originally associated with seed quality, germination and plant survival, bringing us closer now than ever before to a future of sustainable and efficient agriculture.

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Agrowaste Fibers as Sustainable Alternative to Cotton

Vandana Gupta and Suman Sodhi

This article indicates the potential of natural cellulosic fibers obtained from agro-waste for the development of textile and allied products. Due to environmental constraint the cotton fiber is being replaced by many other natural fibers as they exhibit inherent multifunctional properties which are more sustainable. Since cotton is an important part of textile and allied industries because of its protagonist nature, many fibers need to be blended with cotton to develop God quality yarns and fabrics. Keeping the importance and demand for natural cellulosic fibers into consideration, industries need to find ways to make cotton more sustainable and appropriate application of other agro waste fibers for consumer and environment in coming future.

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Application of Insect Pheromone in Agricultural Insect - Pests Management

Ankit Kumar and Aditya Kumar Sharma

Insect pheromones are specific natural compounds that meet modern pest control requirements, i.e., species-specificity, lack of toxicity to mammals, environmentally benign, and a component for the Integrated Pest Management of agricultural pests. Therefore, the practical application of insect pheromones, particularly sex pheromones, have had a tremendous success in controlling low density pest populations, and long-term reduction in pest populations with minimal impact on their natural enemies. Mass trapping and mating disruption strategies using sex pheromones have significantly reduced the use of conventional insecticides, thereby providing sustainable and ecofriendly pest management in agricultural crops.

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Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) Bioactive Compounds and Applications

Gurusamy, K. et al.

Turmeric is widely utilized as a spice, food colorant, and preservative in India, China, and South-East Asia. Potential bioactive compounds present in the turmeric and its extracts, it has been utilized in traditional medicine for various diseases such as diabetes, hepatitis, hemorrhoids, hysteria, indigestion, skin disease, inflammation, anorexia, hepatic disorders, cough, and sinusitis. Turmeric contains 3-6% polyphenolic compounds, collectively known as curcuminoids, which is a mixture of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin. Curcuminoids are major components responsible for various biological actions. Pure curcumin has more potent superoxide anion scavenging activity. Curcumin acts as a pro-oxidant in the presence of transition metal ions (Cu and Fe) and is a potent bioprotectant with a potentially wide range of therapeutic applications. This review article comprises several inputs like presence of active compounds, extraction procedure, structure curcumin, various pharmaceutical applications and recent research.

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Agroforestry: A Tool to Save the Planet

Kaberi Mahanta et al.

Agroforestry is a traditional land use system that may contribute to the solution of environmental degradation that arises due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Agroforestry is the practice of deliberately integrating woody vegetation (trees or shrubs) with crops and/or animal systems to benefit from the resulting ecological and economic interactions. Agriculture is currently a major net producer of greenhouse gasses and one of the reasons for the current biodiversity crises. Climate change has a great impact on agricultural ecosystems. Moreover, urbanization, industrialization and population explosion results in unbalanced environment. Agroforestry systems incorporating trees in crop cultivation or livestock systems can help to enhance carbon sequestration and to compensate for ongoing biodiversity loss. Agroforestry provides numerous provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting ecosystem services and environmental benefits while promoting eco-intensification based on a more efficient use of the resources.

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Welfare of Animals during Handling and Transportation

Dr. Dileep Singh et al.

Animal welfare is a major public concern because all farmed animals are thought to be sentient beings. Positive and negative aspects of the welfare of animals during transport should be assessed using a range of behavioural, physiological and carcass quality measures. Many of the indicators are measures of stress, involving long-term adverse effects, or indicators of pain, fear, or other feelings. Some of the key factors affecting the welfare of animals during handling and transport are: attitudes to animals and the need for staff training; methods of payment of staff; laws and retailers' codes; journey planning; traceability of animals; genetic selection; rearing conditions and experience; the mixing of animals from different social groups; handling procedures; driving methods; space allowance per animal on the vehicle; journey length; increased susceptibility to disease; increased spread of disease and the extent to which each individual can be inspected during the journey.

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Kasuti Embroidery: A Timeless Tradition of Karnataka

Reenawanti et al.

India is the land of rich culture and diverse traditions. Almost every region of India has a distinct style of embroidery based on cultural history of the region. Kasuti embroidery, originating from the state of Karnataka in India, is a traditional craft that holds deep cultural and historical significance. Kasuti embroidery has a rich history dating back to the Chalukya dynasty, with mentions in ancient texts like the Kavirajamarga. Characterized by intricate patterns and motifs, Kasuti has been an integral part of Karnataka's textile heritage for centuries. Traditional Kasuti embroidery involves a variety of stitches, including the basic running stitch (gavanti), the double running stitch (murgi), and the cross-stitch (menthe). These stitches are used to create intricate geometric and floral patterns on fabrics like cotton and silk, using threads in contrasting colors. It used in traditional clothing like the Ilkal saree and the Kurta.

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The Potential of Faba Beans in Agricultural Systems and its Wild Relatives

Warale Shashank Sukhdev and Dr. Neha Thomas

Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) have emerged as a promising crop with multifaceted potential in modern agricultural systems. This review says about the diverse roles of faba beans can play in sustainable agriculture, encompassing aspects such as soil health, crop rotation, yield improvement, and nutritional benefits. Vicia narbonensis, Vicia palaestina, and Vicia kalakhensis these are wild relatives of Faba bean. Faba beans are potential to improve soil fertility and fix atmospheric nitrogen, offer substantial ecological advantages as a rotation crop. Moreover, their adaptability to diverse climatic conditions and relatively low input requirements makes them an attractive option for farmers aiming to mitigate environmental impacts while maintaining profitability. Beyond their agronomic benefits, faba beans also exhibit nutritional qualities, contributing to food security and human health. Faba beans are rich in protein (20-35%), carbohydrates (55-65%), dietary fiber (10-15%), vitamins, and minerals, making them a valuable source of essential nutrients. Their unique profile, including high levels of lysine and other amino acids, distinguishes them as a complementary protein source, particularly in vegetarian and vegan diets. Furthermore, bioactive compounds like flavonoids and phenolic acids are present in faba bean, which have properties like antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, potentially reduces the risk of chronic diseases like cardiovascular ailments and certain cancers. Despite these advantages, challenges such as disease susceptibility and limited market demand pose obstacles to widespread adoption. This review identifies areas for further research and emphasizes the need for integrated approaches to fully harness the potential of faba beans in modern agricultural systems.

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Empowering Farmers: The Role of Human- Computer Interaction in Agricultural Extension

Abhishek Naik et al.

In order to increase productivity and enhance user experience, this discipline investigates the implementation of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) concepts in the agricultural industry. It highlights the obstacles and deficiencies in the field of HCI research and suggests design concepts for HCI that are specifically suited to the special demands of the farming environment. In order to get insight into user preferences and issues, the study employs user surveys, interviews, and usability testing. This research highlights the value of user-centered design in agricultural contexts and offers case studies and useful insights for agricultural technology developers, legislators, and HCI practitioners.

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Sewage-fed Aquaculture in India: Challenges and Potential Solution

Akash Debnath and Sampa Baidya

Sewage-fed aquaculture, a prevalent practice across various regions in Asia, involves fertilizing fish production with wastewater-a method known for its efficiency in utilizing resources. One prominent approach within this practice is the sanitary engineering pond system, which not only aids in fish cultivation but also significantly conserves energy. Today, sewage-fed aquaculture has become a well-established industry, offering economic stability due to its ability to yield marketable products with proper maintenance efforts. This unique culture system utilizes nutrient-rich water sources from urban and industrial areas for both aquaculture and agriculture, promoting sustainable production. By recycling used water from urban and industrial sources, sewage-fed aquaculture mitigates environmental pollution, fosters a sustainable ecosystem, and contributes to biodiversity conservation.

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Invasive Nature of Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E Smith) and its Management Strategies

Bharati Jambunatha Patil and G. Sham Supreeth

Fall armyworm is one of the key pest infesting major cereal crops across the globe. This notorious alien pest has entered into India during 2018 and created huge damage to the crop within a short span of time. The farmers have opted for numerous pest management options but failed resulting in the high yield losses. The previous reports from the neighboring countries have clearly depicted resistance developed by the pest against major insecticides as well as even transgenic maize also. Hence sole dependency on the pesticides is not a viable option. Integration of several techniques in managing fall armyworm can be a solution to fall armyworm management.

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Celebrating World Environment Day: Indoor Planting's Perks for a Greener Environment

Pushpa Yadav et al.

On 5 June 2024, UNEP and ESCAP are bringing together partners and stakeholders in Asia and the Pacific to discuss priority areas on land restoration, desertification, and drought resilience in the region. The event will explore solutions applicable for the region, such as circular water resource use, sustainable food production, and drought resilient urban development. Indoor planting offers numerous physical and emotional benefits. Plants act as natural air purifiers, absorbing toxins and releasing oxygen, improving indoor air quality. They also help regulate humidity levels, benefiting those with dry skin or respiratory issues. Additionally, plants contribute to noise reduction, creating a calming environment, and caring for them has been shown to reduce stress and promote well-being. The visual appeal of indoor plants can brighten a room and enhance its aesthetic. This article encapsulates the essence of World Environment Day 2024, focusing on the themes of land restoration and drought resilience, while acknowledging the host country's role and the regional emphasis on Asia and the Pacific.

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Breaking Boundaries with Transformative Single-Cell Technologies in Plant Research

Somsole Bharath and Uttarayan Dasgupta

Single-cell technologies are revolutionizing our understanding of cellular diversity by examining individual cell genomes, epigenomes, transcriptomes, and proteomes. These methods vary in accuracy and usability, with well-established techniques like single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and emerging multiomics approaches that combine different molecular layers. High-throughput cell isolation techniques, such as microfluidics, contrast with more labor-intensive methods like micromanipulation. Effective cell barcoding, especially combinatorial indexing, is key for sequencing efficiency. Single-cell genome amplification methods like MDA and LIANTI are being refined for better accuracy and coverage, while epigenome sequencing techniques face challenges due to limited DNA copies per cell. Transcriptome sequencing methods, including Smart-seq and Drop-seq, offer varying sensitivity and accuracy. Integrative approaches like scTrio-seq, which combine genomic, epigenetic, and transcriptional data, are enhancing our understanding of cellular behavior. Future advancements aim for "omni-omics," capturing a complete molecular and spatial picture of cells to fully understand their properties and lineage histories.

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Behavioral Differences between Sheep, Goat, Cattle and Buffalo

Dr. Abhishek Singh Tomar et al.

This comprehensive study delves deep into the behavioral variances in foraging and general activity among sheep, goats, cattle, and buffalo, shedding light on their remarkable adaptation to diverse environmental conditions. Each species displays unique behaviors rooted in evolutionary adaptations and dietary preferences. Sheep, as grazers with a preference for grasses, tend to flock closely, enhancing their safety against predators. In contrast, goats, with their browsing behavior and preference for varied vegetation, exhibit independence and agility, enabling them to exploit a wider range of foraging niches. Cattle and buffaloes thrive in different environments due to their distinct grazing and social behaviors. Understanding these differences is crucial for effective livestock management and can optimize grazing patterns, enhance resource use, and improve sustainability across different environments.

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Rural Marketing: Bridging the Gap to Success

Komal Shukla et al.

Rural marketing is essential in bridging the economic divide between rural and urban areas, fostering development and improving livelihoods. Rural marketing facilitates access to broader markets for rural producers, educates consumers, and promotes infrastructure development. Additionally, it creates local employment opportunities, encourages technology adoption, and supports product customization to meet rural needs. Collaborations with government and NGOs enhance the impact of these efforts. Overall, rural marketing emerges as a critical strategy for driving economic growth and achieving sustainable development in rural regions.

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An Insight into Recalcitrant Seeds of Forestry Species in India

Ankita Sharma and Lokinder Sharma

Recalcitrant seeds, which cannot tolerate desiccation, pose significant challenges for the storage and germination of forestry species in India. This article provides insights into the characteristics, storage challenges, and germination requirements associated with recalcitrant seeds. The storage sensitivity of recalcitrant seeds limits their viability, affecting their availability for reforestation and afforestation programs. Immediate sowing in a suitable environment with high moisture levels and favorable temperatures is crucial for successful germination. Despite the challenges, the inclusion of recalcitrant species in forest restoration efforts is vital for maintaining biodiversity, ecosystem services, and supporting rural livelihoods. This article provides information regarding germination and storage viability of recalcitrant seeds. The conservation and utilization of recalcitrant seeds are inevitable for sustaining forest ecosystems and promoting sustainable development in India.

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