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Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) Bioactive Compounds and Applications

Turmeric is widely utilized as a spice, food colorant, and preservative in India, China, and South-East Asia. Potential bioactive compounds present in the turmeric and its extracts, it has been utilized in traditional medicine for various diseases such as diabetes, hepatitis, hemorrhoids, hysteria, indigestion, skin disease, inflammation, anorexia, hepatic disorders, cough, and sinusitis. Turmeric contains 3-6% polyphenolic compounds, collectively known as curcuminoids, which is a mixture of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin. Curcuminoids are major components responsible for various biological actions. Pure curcumin has more potent superoxide anion scavenging activity. Curcumin acts as a pro-oxidant in the presence of transition metal ions (Cu and Fe) and is a potent bioprotectant with a potentially wide range of therapeutic applications. This review article comprises several inputs like presence of active compounds, extraction procedure, structure curcumin, various pharmaceutical applications and recent research.