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A Review of Global Warming Effect on Aquatic Flora and Fauna

Global warming presents a significant threat to aquatic ecosystems, impacting both flora and fauna in various ways. Experimental studies and predictions highlight the potential for substantial biodiversity losses, particularly in freshwater ecosystems spanning mountain streams, river basins, and lowland rivers. The combined effects of warming and contaminants can produce complex interactions, further complicating conservation efforts. This phenomenon extends to tropical wetlands, where the impacts on fisheries and aquatic biodiversity remain inadequately understood. Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions exacerbate these effects, contributing to ozone layer depletion and disrupting marine habitats. The interconnectedness of Earth's ecosystems amplifies the consequences, potentially leading to species extinction by the end of the century. Mitigation and adaptation strategies are essential, involving conservation, restoration, and reduction of non-climate stressors.